zFrom ancient times goods have been transported from the countryside to big cities and towns and vice versa. Goods also have already been traded with neighboring and distant countries. The very best example could be the ancient Silk Route. The Silk route made utilization of different modes of transportation in line with the region. Whilst in some places camels were used to move goods in the shape of caravans, in coastal areas ships were the preferred mode of transportation.
Transportation of goods is a broad term including several types of activities and modes of transportation. Moving raw materials from mines or forest areas to factories, transporting the finished goods to markets, distribution of goods to various consumer centers worldwide are simply some of the activities that can come beneath the category.
Another example that may be stated is that of agricultural produce transported to a food processing unit. The processed goods are then stored in a warehouse to be transported to distribution centers.
The mode of transport used in this technique would vary widely based on the volume of goods to be moved, the urgency and the geographical topography of the region. Today goods are transported using various modes of transport giving rise to transport corridors. Transport corridors along with favorable customs and tariff duties have boosted trade in various elements of the world.
Road Transportation (Roadways) could be the oldest method of transport used for moving goods. Whether in the form of caravan trails or paved paths, roads have been used extensively in the past. The automobile revolutionized road transport and today freight trucks, wagons and trailers carry large volumes of goods across highways.
Also with improved methods of lying roads using material like concrete and tarmac, roads are now a whole lot more durable. Further advances in civil engineering have meant that bridges can be built across water bodies facilitating movement of goods across regions separated by rivers.
Maritime transportation happens to be an important mode to move goods across countries and continents. Consuming less energy when compared with roadways or rail, cargo ships can carry tens and thousands of a lot of freight in one trip in one port to another.
With the advent of containerization, goods is now able to be easily transported using ships which can be unloaded at ports and then transported via rail to inland markets.
After the Industrial Revolution, rail transport started initially to be extensively employed for moving goods. Rail technology has improved considerably over the years. Today diesel-electric locomotives haul large quantities of freight in most areas of the world.
Top speed rail transport has became efficient in transporting goods over large distances in countries such as the United States, Russia and China and in Europe.
The use of aircraft in transporting cargo has generally been restricted to areas where urgency is the principal need. Large airfreight carriers like the Boeing 707 and 727 can transport significant amounts of cargo at a time.
However the expense of transportation and limitation in the quantity of goods which can be transferred at any given time has prevented large scale use of aircraft in goods movement.